Jordan Park was established in 1889 as the first public playground in Kraków, Poland, and the first of its kind in Europe. The most innovative aspect of Jordan’s idea of public parks was perhaps the change in public’s perception: stressing the importance of physical education and making people realize that physical exercise is equally important to intellectual development of children, while shaping their personality. The main focus was on games, so that the participants wouldn’t feel pressured but rather spent time exercising in a pleasant way. They practiced the javelin throw, archery, and organized walking on stilts, but also played team sports based on field competition. Soccer, cricket and tennis were introduced, as well as common games such as “Chinese wall


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